د. عبد الفتاح ماضي السبت، 16 شباط / فبراير 2013 11:20
د.عبدالفتاح ماضي، "مستقبل العلمانية في الدول العربية"، في: الإسلام، الحركات الإسلامية، والديمقراطية في الشرق الأوسط: التحديات، الفرص، والإجابات، تحرير: راجيف كامور ونافاز نزار (دلهي: 2013). الفصل السادس.
Abdel Fattah Mady, "Secularism and Its Fate in the Arab World," in Islam, Islamist Movements and Democracy in the Middle East: Challenges, Opportunities and Responses, Editors: Rajeesh Kumar and Navaz Nizar (Global Vision Publishing House, Delhi, India 2013), ISBN: 978-81-8220-548-2. Chapter 6.
Having been exposed to modernization, secularism and other challenges, Arab scholars and thinkers introduced three main trends (reconciliatory, secularist, and rejectionist). Such trends brought about different reactions over the last two centuries. Early reconciliatory reformists adopted the first reaction to modernization. They regarded democracy and Islam as compatible conceptions. In turn, Arab secularists saw secularism as the greatest, sole solution to the challenges facing their societies. The third reaction was to defend the Arab region against European colonialism. The goal was to liberate the land from colonialism. In the post-independence era of the Arab world, both rejectionists and reconciliatory Islamists have proclaimed different conceptions and solutions. They regard secularism—which was introduced as a cure for religious abuses of power and had positive consequences with regard to the relations between religion and state in the West—as a concept that cannot be a universal instrument since any attempt to implement it in other societies would depend on circumstances in those societies. The main problem that has emerged in Arab countries is that many Arab countries advocate secularism without any consideration for their own historic and religious circumstances, or the historic conditions that led to the development of secularism in the West. The Arab model of secularism disregarded the equilibrium that exists in Western societies between the state and religion. Further, Islamic groups came under severe attack in the name of secularism, modernization, and nationalism. While rejectionists fought the state and sought to establish "an Islamic state," reconciliatory Islamists sought to renovate present systems by means of Islamic principles and the best aspects of other sociopolitical experiences. Thus, introducing secularism to the Arab region has brought about a problem of equivalence in understanding challenges facing Arab societies and the relations between Islamic values and politics.